Browse by Theme: Conflict & Fragility

Boran, Gabra and Garri pastoralists in the border areas of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia have long relied on the management of natural resources to maximise land use and sustain livestock productivity. Managing herd movements plays a key role in rangeland management, with some areas suitable for use during the dry season and some during the wet season.

The rangeland as a whole constitutes a communally owned economic resource that must be shared among the different pastoralist ethnic groups and clans living in the area. They have developed an institutional system of primary and secondary rights of access with procedures and principles for negotiations between different pastoralist groups to regulate the sharing of water and pasture.

This indigenous institutional framework governs the mobility of herders and their livestock, including across the international border, maintains and restores collaboration among clans and ethnic groups and provides a framework for managing disputes and conflict.

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On going assessment of the factors, issues, and other dynamics is essential to developing objective strategy and making wise choices in conflict situations.

Broad participation in an analysis and assessment process by all the parties will help build a shared perspective on the problem and the steps necessary to move forward.

Indeed, joint analysis is often a key step in bringing parties to the table. The following guide offers a series of questions to help identify useful information.

The commentary is specifically focused on the data from the analysis that will impact the building of a forum and the getting-to-the-table stage of disputes.

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Violent conflict and ‘situations of fragility’ represent significant challenges for aid effectiveness. Applying traditional development approaches in an unchanged fashion in such contexts simply does not work.

Aid can have unintended interactions with conflict - both to exacerbate or mitigate violence or the potential for violence.

For this reason, CARE International believes that working in or on conflict requires a different approach.

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One of the long-standing challenges to successful peacebuilding has been the difficulty of measuring results and generating evidence that can help identify what types of interventions work best. This guide builds on work undertaken by CARE International and International Alert in three countries to pilot theory based evaluation tools to help evaluate the impact of the peacebuilding projects. 19 projects and 38 theories of change were tested, with the resulting tools, tips and processes captured here.

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This paper lays out the case for a renewed focus on conflict sensitivity by donor agencies. It presents recommendations for how donors can integrate conflict sensitivity into their own systems and processes, as well as how they can promote conflict sensitivity in their implementing partners. The paper is intended to inform and influence policy makers and practitioners across a range of donor agencies. The recommendations have relevance across humanitarian, development and peacebuilding activities. It has been developed by the DFID-funded Conflict Sensitivity Consortium, and draws upon experience and lessons learned during implementation of the consortium project.

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A report from the Danish Institute for International Studies with input from CARE Denmark, focuses on the links between climate change and conflict, the types of conflict and approaches to conflict prevention. CARE Niger’s Wells for Peace project is featured as a case study, with its main innovation ‘a thoroughly participatory approach in which social agreement amongst key stakeholders and users is reached before the infrastructure – in this case a well – is established.’ The approach is credited with preventing local conflicts that normally result from water initiatives. With conflicts turning violent in the intervention region falling from 56% at baseline to 24% to 0% after 5 years.

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Pastoral areas in the Horn of Africa are frequently seen as a region of poverty and constant crisis, where repeated rain failures leave millions of people dependent on food aid. The long-term erosion of pastoralists’ resilience is ascribed to various causes: a degraded range, the loss of key grazing lands, increasing population pressure and conflict. But pastoralism is also a modern industry, bringing in hundreds of millions of dollars each year from a thriving international trade, creating an increasingly commercialised livestock-owning class coexist-ing with an ever poorer majority.

This presents a dual challenge. How can this vital economic sector be supported, at the same time as sup-porting the majority of pastoralists to remain independent, with resilient livelihoods?

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