In many urban settlements in developing countries, securing a livelihood can be complex and confusing.

Urban residents live in uncertain environments, with urban growth which outstrips economic opportunities, government services which are often reducing and deteriorating, rapid cultural change and increasing crime.

People employ varied strategies, often living on credit and networks of support, undertaking seasonal work, earning incomes in the informal economy, shifting from one temporary household arrangement to another.

Strategy outcomes often do not meet even the most basic of households’ needs, increasing the vulnerability of those already marginalised.

Latest Publications